An Introduction to Property Graphs

Property graphs are an extremely popular type of graph model, so it is worth having a good understanding of what they are and how they differ from other commonly used graph models. As well as being widely used in Knowledge Graph implementations, they can also be used to represent things like IoT (Internet of Things) networks, social networks and financial transactions.

The model is used in graph databases to represent and store data in a highly flexible and scalable manner. It is a type of graph data structure that consists of nodes, edges, and properties. Each node represents an entity or object, each edge represents a relationship between entities, and each property represents a characteristic of an entity or a relationship.

The Structure of a Property Graph

The nodes in a property graph can represent anything from people, places, things, or concepts. Nodes can be labelled to indicate their type or class and can also have one or more properties associated with them. For example, a node labelled "Person" might have properties like "Name", "Age", "Address", "Occupation", etc. Properties can have different data types, such as strings, numbers, dates, or even complex data structures like arrays or maps.

The edges in a property graph represent relationships between nodes. Edges can be labelled to indicate the type of relationship and can also have properties associated with them. For example, an edge labelled "Friend" might have a property like "DateAdded", which indicates when two people became friends.

One of the key features of property graphs is that they allow for properties to be attached to both nodes and edges. This allows for a rich and expressive data model where relationships can have characteristics of their own, such as timestamps or ratings. This makes it possible to represent complex data structures with high accuracy and detail.

In addition to nodes, edges, and properties, property graphs also support indexes and queries. Indexes are used to speed up queries and enable efficient retrieval of data. Queries in property graphs are expressed using a query language, such as Cypher or Gremlin, which allows for powerful querying capabilities that can traverse the graph in various ways.

Why Are Property Graphs So Popular? 

 One of the advantages of property graphs is their flexibility and scalability. Since they can represent any kind of data and relationships, they can be used to model a wide variety of scenarios. In addition, property graphs can handle large amounts of data and scale horizontally across multiple machines, making them suitable for big data applications.

Another advantage of property graphs is their ease of use. The query languages used in property graphs, such as Cypher and Gremlin, are designed to be user-friendly and intuitive, making it easy for developers and analysts to write and execute queries.

Because of their ease of use, flexibility and scalability, property graphs are widely used in many industries and domains, including social networks, e-commerce, finance, and recommendation systems. They are particularly useful for representing and analysing highly connected and complex data, such as social networks or supply chain networks.

Labelled Property Graphs (LPGs) & Typed Property Graphs

The simplicity and flexibility of property graphs makes them ideal for use in rapid development and prototyping scenarios.

In order to provide to provide additional context and semantics to the data in a property graph, labels or types can be added as properties of nodes. In a labelled property graph (LPG) it is mandatory that a node has a label property. The label is a string or identifier that represents a category or class of nodes, such as "Person", "Place", "Organization", or "Product". The label provides additional information about the nature of the node and helps to classify it within the graph.

A Typed Property Graph is very similar to a labelled property graph but a type rather than a label is the enforced property on a node. The type property of a node determines the set of properties that it can have. For example, a node representing a person might have a type of "Person", which allows it to have properties such as name, age, and email. The addition of types is useful for data integrity and ensuring that only valid properties are associated with nodes.

Labels and types can also be added to the edges of graphs. For example, an edge (relationship) between a person and a company might have a type of "WorksAt", which allows it to have properties such as start date and end date. A label on an edge could describe different types of relationships, such as "Friend", "Follower", or "Colleague".

There are pros and cons adding types or labels to a property graph, some important considerations are explored here:


When labels or types are enforced on nodes, users can more easily identify patterns and relationships in the data. Without these, property graphs may lack the contextual information required to understand relationships between nodes.

Data Quality

By enforcing a strict data schema, labelled or typed property graphs can help ensure data quality. Labels and types can be used to enforce consistency in data entry and ensure that data is categorised correctly. Without a strict schema, property graphs are more susceptible to data inconsistencies and errors. This can be problematic for larger and more complex graphs.


Property graphs are highly flexible and can be easily modified or extended to accommodate new data types or relationships. Labelled and typed property graphs are more rigid in terms of their data schema. Once a label or type is assigned to a node, it can be difficult to change or modify without affecting the entire graph.

Query Performance

The addition of labels or types to property graphs can help to improve query performance by limiting the scope of searches to a particular type of node. For example, if you are only interested in people in a social network graph, you can restrict your search to nodes with the "Person" label.


The addition of labels or types to a property graph can increase the complexity of the data model. This can make it more difficult to manage and maintain, especially for large and complex graphs.


The addition of labels or types often means that a property graphs require more storage space.

How to Create a Property Graph

The Graph.Build Studio Allows you to very easily build a property graph model with no code. You can import data from virtually any source using the enterprise-ready transformers and publish your model to an output file or directly to a database of your choosing.